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科学美国人60秒:仙女水母也需要打个盹儿

lzy 于2017-10-19发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学美国人60秒:仙女水母也需要打个盹儿
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科学.jpg
 
 Even Jellyfish Need a Nap
 
仙女水母也需要打个盹儿
Humans are hardly alone in their need for sleep—as any cat owner knows. But what about other, very different animals?
养猫的人都知道,人类并不是唯一需要睡眠的人。但是那么其他的别的动物呢?

“In thinking about this…we wanted to use an evolutionary argument to figure out what is the simplest animal to sleep.” Ravi Nath, a graduate student of biology and bioengineering at Caltech
考虑到这个问题……我们想用进化理论来理解什么是最简单的睡眠动物。Ravi Nath,是加州理工学院生物及生物工程专业的研究生。
“We decided to approach it from a conservation point of view, how conserved the sleep state is. And looked back into the animal tree and specifically looked at jellyfish.” Claire Bedbrook, also a biology and bioengineering graduate student at Caltech.
“我们决定保守地看待这个问题,睡眠状态是如何进行的,回过头来看看动物族谱,特别是看看水母。”Claire Bedbrook也是加州理工学院的生物和生物工程专业的研究生。
Jellyfish have no central nervous system. “They do have neurons—their nervous system is a sort of loose set of neurons that control the animal’s behavior. There’s no control center.”
水母不具有中央神经系统。“但它们有神经元——水母的神经系统是由一些松散的神经元组成,这些神经元控制水母的行为。但是,并没有控制中心。”
Nath, Bedbrook and the rest of their team worked with a species known as the upside-down jellyfish. “Unlike jellyfish that we’re probably most used to seeing in the wild, these jellyfish actually rest their bell on the seafloor, or in our case the tank bottom, and they pulse in place.” These habits made this jellyfish easy to observe.
Nath, Bedbrook以及队伍中的其他成员研究了一种仙女水母。“与我们在自然界经常看到的水母不同的是,实际上仙女水母肚子接触海底,或者呢以我们的角度来说,水槽的底部,之后,它们就会跳动。”这些习性让仙女水母易于观察。
The researchers recorded the animals’ behavior during the day and at night, to see if these jellyfish met the scientific criteria for sleep. “Those three behavioral criteria are, first, that the animal goes through a period of quiescence where they are less active. The second is that during this quiescent state, the animals are not as responsive to environmental stimulus. And the third is that this quiescent state is actually necessary for the animal’s well-being and survival.”
研究人员观察这种动物白天和晚上的行为,观察仙女水母是否满足睡眠的科学标准。“这三条睡眠标准分别是,第一,在动物活跃度减少时,它们会经历一段安静期;第二,在安静期,动物对环境的刺激反应灵敏度减弱。第三,安静期对于动物的健康和生存必不可少。”
The observations revealed that these jellyfish do in fact sleep. That’s a big deal because for scientists “there was this assumption in the community that you needed to have a certain level of complexity”—namely a central nervous system—“to actually sleep. And I think this study really challenges that assumption.” The finding is in the journal Current Biology.
观察结果显示,这些水母实际上在睡觉。这个结论意义重大,因为,对于科学家来说,“研究的生物群落进行假设时,需要有一定程度的复杂性”——即水母是否有中央神经系统——来控制睡眠。我认为研究对这个假设提出了挑战。”该研究结果发表在《当代生物学》杂志上。
So what does this study tell us about why animals sleep, and how sleep evolved? Bedbrook says that although more work needs to be done, they have some ideas. “One hypothesis that we really like is that any animal that has neurons will have a sleep state, and that sleep might be an intrinsic property of neurons.” Nath agrees. “So neurons have a huge metabolic cost, and so maybe this period of sleep is a period of consolidated energy conservation that has evolved with neurons essentially.”
那么,这项研究告诉我们关于为什么动物睡眠以及睡眠是如何进化的什么知识呢?Bedbrook 表示,尽管还需深化研究,但是他们已经有了一些想法。“其中一个我们比较赞同的假设是有神经系统的动物都存在睡眠状态,睡眠可能是神经元的根本属性。”对此,Nath表示同意。“神经元新陈代谢旺盛,所以睡眠这段期间是由神经元进化而来的能量综合时期。”
So nerves might be keeping you up at night—but having nerves is what’s probably putting you to sleep.
神经让你晚上清醒——但是,神经系统让你晚上入睡。
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